Tuberculosis, a bacterial infection, most commonly affects the lungs. Tuberculosis can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. Often Called TB for short, tuberculosis is the most common major infectious disease today. With that title the virus is infecting two billion people which is approximately one-third of the world’s population.
There are various tests that may be performed to diagnose the disease. The history is taken and a physical exam is conducted. A chest x-ray may also be done but will not be enough to diagnose the disease. A test called the Mantoux test or PPD may be done to rule out the disease. To confirm the disease a sputum smear from the patient will be tested for acid – fast bacillus, three positive results will confirm the disease.
The most common drug used for TB is Isoniazid (INH). This drug is fairly inexpensive, effective and easy to take. In conjunction with other drugs, this drug is very effective against TB. INH preventive treatment is advised for those individuals who having a tuberculin skin test that changed from negative to positive within the past two years, those who have been in close touch with a person having infectious tuberculosis, a positive skin test reaction and a special medical condition such as HIV infection or AIDS etc. Even if testing shows that the patient is infected with an isoniazid-resistant strain, this drug is continued as some organisms are yet to be sensitive. Two more drugs to which the organisms are likely to be sensitive will also be incorporated into the regimen.
Signs and symptoms are usually brought about by any type of pulmonary disease but there are hallmark signs and symptoms that may also support the diagnosis of Tuberculosis. The common signs and symptoms may include difficulty in breathing, progressive fatigue due to poor oxygenation, weight loss, lack of appetite, vomiting, indigestion, life insurance no exam body weakness, productive cough, low-grade fever and chills, night sweats, and most probably blood streaked sputum. Tuberculosis is one of the major killer diseases of modern times. Till recently, anti-tuberculosis drug regimes were successful in curing the disease in a majority of affected patients. However, multi-drug resistance is fast becoming a major concern for health providers the world over. Moreover, tuberculosis is no more a disease of only the poor or developing nations.
The basic treatment of Tuberculosis is a combination of more antibiotics found to be efficient against the particular type of bacterial strain. One single antibiotic is likely to lead to resistance developing. The cure must last for at least 6 months but the duration of treatment can go up to 9 months or a whole year. Most common, the combination of Hydrazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamid and Ethambutol is used in treating tuberculin infection. Prevalence of kidney tuberculosis differs all over the developing world where the infection is widespread. The disease is more widespread in higher socioeconomic groups, akin to the pattern discovered in Europe. Kidney tuberculosis is unusual in tropical Africa in spite of the fact that other kinds of tuberculosis are usual.